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how did agustín de iturbide die

Emperor agustín I. what name did he take Agustín de Iturbide. Agustín de Iturbide was the first emperor of Mexico. One must keep in mind that a Republican, Federalist government was virtually unheard of, and that for 300 years New Spain had lived in a monarchy. [10], Shortly after signing the Treaty of Córdoba, the Spanish government reneged. Emperor of Mexico, 1822-23. The revolutionary coalition quickly fell apart as Iturbide removed Guerrero and his insurgent following from influence. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively gaining independence for Mexico. [18] Ferdinand VII had regained the upper hand against the liberals in Spain and increased his influence outside the country. Occupying a place in Mexican national memory as an arrogant self-serving opportunist and failure, Agustín de Iturbide (EE-toor-BE-day) was instrumental in securing Mexico’s independence from Spain, after which he installed himself as the new nation’s first (and only Mexican-born) emperor, only to be overthrown after a brief and ineffectual reign. He would be overthrown with the Mexican Revolution. Iturbide's strategy of defining a plan and using the military to back it up started a trend in Mexican politics that would dominate until the 20th century. [17] Iturbide and other Spanish commanders relentlessly pursued Morelos, capturing and executing him in late 1815.[2]. Agustín de Iturbide died on 1824-07-19. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu was born on September 27, 1783 in Valladolid, Michoacán, now named Morelia. In 1810 Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla offered him a post with his revolutionary army, but Iturbide refused and pledged himself to the Spanish cause instead. Agustín de Iturbide was the first emperor of Mexico. [25], In 1921, former revolutionary general and newly elected president of Mexico Alvaro Obregón mounted a massive centenary celebration for Mexican independence, even larger than the one that Porfirio Díaz had staged in 1910. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. or Agustín I. born Sept. 27, 1783, Valladolid, Viceroyalty of New Spain. A peerless horseman and a valiant dragoon who acquired a reputation for achieving victory against numerical odds, his prowess in the field gained him the nom de guerre of "El Dragón de Hierro" or "The Iron Dragon", in reference to his skill and position in the army. This manuscript, tinged with blood and found between the sash and shirt of Agustín de Iturbide after his execution by firing squad on July 19, 1824, is an emotional defense of Iturbide’s public career. PASSERBY, ADMIRE HIM. Instead, they nullified their own election of Iturbide as emperor and refused to acknowledge the Plan of Iguala or the Treaty of Córdoba. Although regarded by most scholars as a self-serving military adventurer, he has remained for the Roman Catholic church and for the conservative classes the great hero of Mexican independence. [16] In 1813, Viceroy Félix María Calleja promoted Iturbide to colonel and put him in charge of the regiment in Celaya. [2][8][16], However, one year later, with the support of an auditor, named Bataller, and staunch monarchists in the viceregal government, the charges were withdrawn. Two years after Alice died in 1892, Agustín married a British woman, Lucy Eleanor Jackson, though the marriage did not last. De la Garza gave up without a fight and was presented to Iturbide, who chose to pardon the general and reinstate him in his old post. HIS SOUL RESTS IN THE BOSOM OF GOD."[6]. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu was born on September 27, 1783 in Valladolid, Michoacán, now named Morelia. He was solidly aligned with the Criollos. Iturbide was crowned by Rafael Mangino y Mendivil, the head of the Congress, in itself a statement by Congress: the state, not the church or any other power, would be sovereign. The Congress, believing itself to be sovereign over the Emperor and the people and the recipient of the executive, legislative, and judicial powers, antagonized Iturbide. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu was born in what was called Valladolid, now Morelia, the state capital of Michoacán, on 27 September 1783. Perhaps it was because of this debt that de la Garza wavered in his resolve to detain Iturbide, at first receiving him warmly but then arresting him and, on the way to his trial, de la Garza gave Iturbide command over the military escort that accompanied them and requesting that Iturbide presented himself to the nearby village of Padilla. [27] The Mexican Army benefited from the celebrations with new uniforms and equipment, and there was even a re-enactment of Iturbide's triumphal entry into Mexico City.[28]. When did Agustín de Iturbide die? He studied at the seminary of his native town and then joined the viceroy s army. Guerrero was a supporter because Guerrero and Iturbide worked together to make the Plan de Iguala, or the Treaty of the Three Guarantees. Over the course of the war, Agustín fought against generals José María Morelos from 1810 to 1816 and Vicente Guerrero in 1820.[1][5]. He turned down the offer to reclaim his post since he felt that his honor had been damaged. When he returned to Mexico in July 1824, he was arrested and executed. During the French Intervention the country would face Civil War amongst conservative, Catholic, Europe-adherent monarchists led by the ironically liberal Maximilian I of México, and liberal, masonic, anti-clerical, reformist and United States-adherent liberals led by the American-backed Benito Juárez. Added 9 days ago|11/14/2020 6:46:30 PM. In 1816, however, grave charges of extortion and violence caused his removal. Iturbide returned to Mexico on 14 July 1824,[2] accompanied by his wife, two children, and a chaplain (Joseph A. Both Hidalgo and Morelos had been captured and executed; only guerrilla bands (under the command of General Vicente Guerrero) prevented the complete victory of the royalists. 70725132, citing Saint John the Evangelist Church Cemetery, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, USA ; Maintained by Luis Hernandez (contributor 46497662) . In modern Mexico, the liberal tendency has dominated, such that much writing about Iturbide is hostile, seeing him as a fallen hero who betrayed the nation by grasping for personal power after independence. However, their reasons for joining together were very different, and those differences would later foment the turmoil that occurred after independence.[20]. [4][5][8] In the Spanish colonial era, racial caste was important to advancement, including military rank, and having some indigenous ancestry was often a disadvantage. During the Mexican War of Independence, he built a successful political and military coalition that took control in Mexico City His family was of Spanish Basque ancestry, and he grew up in a wealthy, aristocratic family. [1][4], In his teens, Iturbide entered the royalist army, having been accepted as a criollo. He was born of a crillo mother and a Spanish father. "[15] However, the rest of the 19th century would be marked by oscillation between the two political extremes, with each side gaining the upper hand at one point or another. Iturbide met with O’Donoju and hastily negotiated a treaty, called the Treaty of Córdoba. [20] Among those were prominent Insurgent leaders Vicente Guerrero, Nicolás Bravo and Guadalupe Victoria. Soon, Iturbide was unable to pay his army, forming discontent in a significant portion of his power base. As a younger son, Joaquín was not in line to inherit the family lands, so he migrated to New Spain to make his fortune there. Those moves threatened to reduce Iturbide's influence in current and future governments.[2][12]. "AGUSTÍN DE ITURBIDE. According to the article, Iturbide sent out a questionnaire to military and civilian leaders as to whether the people preferred a republic or a monarchy. [15] Despite the loss by his side, Iturbide distinguished himself in this battle for valor and tenacity. Iturbide recognized that although his provisional junta was working to call a new Congress, most of the nation had already accepted the Plan of Casa Mata. [12] However, it is not clear whether he took the crown at the insistence of the people or simply took advantage of the political situation. Agustin I was born as Agustín Cosme Damian de Iturbide y Arámburu on September 27, 1783 in Valladolid, Michoacan, to José Joaquín de Iturbide y Arreguí and María Josefa de Arámburu y Carrillo de Figueroa. For a couple of years after the defeat of Morelos at Puruarán, the independence movement had diminished significantly. [1][4][7] After that, he worked as an overseer at one of his family's haciendas for a short time, discovering he was a very good horseman. Iturbide had what he could have possibly wanted before becoming Emperor, Anna notes, and so it is not probable that Iturbide conspired to appoint himself Emperor. Dictionary of Hispanic Biography). Comments. Home; Books; Search; Support. Learn Agustin de Iturbide with free interactive flashcards. Mexico's independence wars did not go smooth… Iturbide's enemy-turned-ally, Vicente Guerrero, turned back to enemy when he and General Nicolás Bravo escaped México City and allied themselves with the rebels. However, Congress refused to accept his abdication, arguing that acceptance of abdication would imply that the existence of the throne was legitimate. For a number of Mexican autonomists, a constitutionally sanctioned monarchy seemed a logical solution to the problem of creating a new state as it seemed to be a compromise between those who pushed for a representative form of government and those who wished to keep Mexico's monarchist traditions. He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian at the cathedral. He continued to receive reports from Mexico and advice from supporters that if he returned he would be hailed as a liberator and a potential leader against the Spanish invasion. That state of affairs began to instill turmoil even among those in power. In the place of the Spanish emblem for Mexico, he resurrected the old Tenochtitlan symbol for Mexico City, an eagle perched on a nopal cactus holding a snake in its beak. The 1812 Cadiz Constitution, which was reinstated in Spain in 1820 after the successful Riego Revolt, established a constitutional monarchy, which greatly limited Ferdinand VII's powers. Iturbide's fortunes reversed after his victory when a number of accusations of cruelty and corruption surfaced. 1824: Agustin de Iturbide, Emperor of Mexico. He joined the provincial regiment of his native city in 1797. For those reasons, no European noble would accept the offer of a Mexican crown. After his death, many an author decried the decree calling for Iturbide's death, as it was against all known precepts of the law at the time: it was unheard of that a law could be issued solely against a specific citizen, instead of issuing a general law that would be applied to particular cases. They were initially greeted enthusiastically, but soon, they were arrested by General Felipe de la Garza, the local military commander. Wanting to find a way to peacefully gain independence from Spain, Iturbide … "Agustín de Iturbide" in, Tenenbaum, Barbara A. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, Texas State Historical Association - The Handbook of Texas Online - Biography of Agustín de Iturbide. Essentially, the idea was to bring Ferdinand VII to Mexico City to rule. The fifth child born to his parents, he was the only male to survive and eventually became head of the family. Louise Kearney Iturbide, 1915, photograph taken by Agustín at the time of his marriage to Louise. [7] He helps México gain its independence from Spain on Sept. 16 1824. Iturbide assumed command of the army and, at Iguala, allied his reactionary force with Guerrero’s radical insurgents. Ferdinand's resurgence as a ruler in Spain and his clear intentions to reconquer Mexico meant that no European nation was willing to recognize Mexico's independence, and most broke off economic ties with the new state. He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian at the cathedral there. He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian at the cathedral. Updates? To attract the disparate parties involved in the scheme, the plan offered three guarantees: Mexico would be independent from Madrid, Roman Catholicism would be the official religion, and all inhabitants of the new nation, later México, would be considered equals, with no distinction being made between Spaniards, Creoles, Mestizos, etc., thus eliminating the complicated caste system that had been used until then and abolishing the use of slaves in the territory of the new nation as well. One interesting twist to the story is reported by Mexico City daily La Jornada, which states that Iturbide held the first popular referendum in Mexico. [8] In 1814, he had captured 100 women and incarcerated them into different houses in order to be "re-educated. Iturbide’s Plan de Iguala, published on February 24, 1821, proclaimed three guarantees: (1) immediate independence from Spain, (2) equality for Spaniards and Creoles, and (3) the supremacy of Roman Catholicism and a ban on all other religions. The formulation of the new Congress was changed in how many representatives each Mexican province was granted.[how?] Many liberals and progressives also belonged to Masonic lodges of the Scottish rite, leading these branches of the opposition to be called escoceses (Scots). Bravo and Guerrero wrote that they swore to abide by the Congress's decision, even if it decided to stay as a Constitutional Empire and it elected Iturbide again to lead them. THIS MONUMENT GUARDS THE ASHES OF A HERO. Choose from 2 different sets of Agustin de Iturbide flashcards on Quizlet. Iturbide was unaware of the penalty. [7] While the aristocratic and Spanish lineage of Agustin's father was not in doubt, his mother's ancestry was less clear. I die having come here to help you, and I die merrily, for I die amongst you. Members of the Iturbide family intrigued against the Mexican government in Madrid, New York City, Paris, and Rome as late as the 1890s. Congress never replied. Interpretation  Iturbide, Agustín de. Santa Anna considered escaping to the United States but was stopped by Victoria. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. I decide on Agustin de Iturbide because he was a great leader. By overseeing the ceremonies, Obregón could shape and consolidate his own position in power, which was then relatively weak. [20], On his way to exile, Iturbide and his family were escorted by former insurgent leader Nicolás Bravo, who treated Iturbide harshly. ", Mexican army general and politician, 1st emperor of Mexico, Portrait as Emperor of Mexico by Primitivo Miranda, 1860, Edward A. Riedinger, "Joel Roberts Poinsett," in. [6][8] Iturbide gave his word of honor and did as was bid, surrendering himself to authorities. In that year, President Santa Anna, deciding to rehabilitate the memory of Iturbide, ordered his remains to be transferred to the capital with honors. [18], Executive leadership of the country was passed to the "triumvirate," made up of the generals Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolás Bravo, and Pedro Celestino Negrete. That marked a turn in the war as Morelos would never again achieve the same level of competency as he had before this defeat. Iturbide's next major encounter with the rebels would be against Morelos himself and in his native city of Valladolid. Born in 1783 in Valladolid, now Morelia, began his career as a soldier in the Spanish Royalist army. He still has a following and not all consider him to be a traitor. [2], México owes its name to Iturbide, that of México, as opposed to "United Mexican States." As emperor, Iturbide tried to gain all the power he could. Add an answer or comment. However, to succeed, he would need to put together a very-unlikely coalition of Mexican liberal insurgents, landed nobility, and the Church. Opposition groups began to band together against him. [2] On 1 March 1821, Iturbide was proclaimed head of the Army of the Three Guarantees,[4] with Guerrero fully supporting him and recognizing him as his leader. In May 1823 he went into exile in Europe. Captured on July 15, he was executed four days later. The mansion was lent to him by the family that owned it but was not living in it. The US government appointed Joel Roberts Poinsett as a special envoy to independent Mexico when Iturbide was declared emperor since James Monroe was concerned about how popular and long-lasting the regime might be. Gabriel J. de Yermo.[13]. Death: 19 Jul 1824 (aged 40) Padilla, Padilla Municipality, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Who doesn't love being #1? died July 19, 1824, Padilla, Mex. Lopez). That led to political destabilization, which was resolved temporarily when Iturbide was elected Emperor of the Mexican nation. [2][11][12] However, events in Spain caused problems, as the very monarchy for which that class was fighting was in serious trouble. Agustin de Iturbide was a successful general and emperor of Mexico. [20], The plan gained wide support because it demanded independence without attacking the landed classes and did not threaten social dissolution. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu was born in what was called Valladolid, now Morelia, the state capital of Michoacán, on 27 September 1783.He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian at the cathedral. [20] The elite turned against him when he imposed a 40% property tax. The roles, as it happened, had not been reversed. With her dowry of 100,000 pesos, the couple bought the Hacienda of Apeo in the small town of Maravatío. It is so hard to find heroes these days. piso de 108 m², Alquiler de Piso en calle Agustín de Iturbide, Pinar del Rey, Madrid, barrio Pinar del Rey When did Agustín de Iturbide die? Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (Spanish pronunciation: [aÉ£usˈtin ðe ituɾˈβiðe] ( listen ); 27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. Thus, on May 4, Iturbide set course back to Mexico. Recognizing the wishes of the country, Iturbide personally reopened the same Congress that he had closed in March 1823 and presented his abdication to them. Let the conquered banners serve as a carpet to the brave steeds, may the laurels of triumph bring shade to the brow of the brave Captain. Porfirio Díaz in the late 19th century would install a one-man rule which imposed upon México its first true period of relative peace, in exchange for freedom, and Díaz remaining for the next 30 years in power. As an adult, Agustín lived near the family of Louise Kearney, a D.C.-born daughter of the Brigadier General James Kearney. [1] Iturbide's government was notoriously harsh in turning down territorial negotiations with agents of the US government, as attested by Poinsett. His ashes were received in Mexico City with much pomp and ceremony, and the same Congress that had been against him for so many years gave him honor as a hero of the War of Independence, if not the short imperial reign after. When did Agustín de Iturbide y Green die? 1865, Ana María Josefa Ramona de Huarte y Muñiz, Agustín Jerónimo, Prince Imperial of Mexico, María Gizela Tunkl von Aschbrunn-Iturbide, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Agustín de Iturbide, Libertador de México", "Casa Imperial - Don Agustín de Iturbide", "Biografías y Vidas- Agustín de Iturbide", "Colección de Documentos Históricos – Don Agustín de Iturbide", "La reclusión de mujeres rebeldes: el recogimiento en la guerra de independencia mexicana, 1810- 1819", "Forma Palacio de Iturbide parte de la historia patria", "Agustín de Iturbide convocó a la primera consulta popular en México",ín_de_Iturbide&oldid=991115615, People executed by Mexico by firing squad, People executed for treason against Mexico, People of the Latin American wars of independence, People of the Mexican War of Independence, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo alumni, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles needing additional references from October 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu, María Josefa de Arámburu y Carrillo de Figueroa, Anna, Timothy E. "The Role of Agustín de Iturbide: A Reappraisal. [11] Those accusations could not be proved but cost him his post. To show the military might of the alliance, Iturbide co-ordinated with associated royalist and insurgent commanders in the provinces, opting for a replay of the strategy of closing in on Mexico City from the periphery, which Morelos had attempted in 1811–14. [19] As for corruption, the Count of Pérez Galvez extensively testified that profiteering by many royalist officers, of whom Iturbide was the most visible, was draining the effectiveness of the royal army. The Congress confirmed him and his title of Agustín I, Constitutional Emperor of Mexico, by a vast majority. The local legislature held a trial and sentenced Iturbide to death. The Roman Catholic Church was a supporter because he made them the official religion of Mexico. However, it was not until 1838, during the presidency of Anastasio Bustamante, that the order was confirmed and carried out. Agustin de Iturbide was born in Morelia, Mexico, on Sept. 27, 1783. [4][7] She came from Valladolid, from a prosperous family of businessmen and landowners. Wiki User Answered . Iturbide held a series of negotiations with Guerrero and made a number of demonstrations of his intentions to form an independent Mexico. The new government had indirect representation, based on the Cadiz model, but the Plan of Iguala and the Treaty of Córdoba were clear that the order of things would be kept as it had been before the Cadiz Constitution. Lacy, "The 1921 Centennial Celebration," p. 203. (Technically, the office of viceroy had been replaced by a "superior political chief" under the 1812 Spanish Constitution.) Historians point out that Iturbide had quite possibly all the power, influence, and support he needed before redacting the Plan of Iguala, to crown himself Emperor, and he still wrote the Plan with the clear intention of creating a throne meant for a European noble. [16] Many of these members also belonged to Masonic lodges, which provided an easy forum for communication. Iturbide's remains still rest in the Metropolitan cathedral. Agustín de Iturbide was born on September 27, 1783 in Valladolid, Mexico. The Congress decreed the crown to be hereditary with the title of "Prince of the Union." AUTHOR OF THE INDEPENDENCE OF MÉXICO. Bravo and Guerrero were defeated, with Guerrero suffering such a grievous injury in battle that the nation believed him dead until he resurfaced months later. The successor state would invite Ferdinand VII to rule as emperor or, in default, his brother Don Carlos. [16], As a captain, he pursued rebel forces in the area, managing to capture Albino Licéaga y Rayón, leading to another promotion. Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (Spanish pronunciation: [aɣusˈtin ðe ituɾˈβiðe] (listen); 27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. NOW 50% OFF! There, he published his autobiography, Statement of Some of the Principal Events in the Public Life of Agustín de Iturbide. Agustín de Iturbide was born on September 27, 1783 in Morelia, Mexican, is Emperor of Mexico. When did Agustín de Iturbide die? [10][11], Agustín studied at the Catholic seminary called Colegio de San Nicolás in Valladolid, enrolled in the program for secular officials, though he was not a distinguished student. Victoria was separated from Veracruz, fighting behind Imperial lines. In 1810 he refused a post in Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's revolutionary forces and joined the Royalists. Agustín de Iturbide (Spanish pronunciation: [aÉ£usˈtin ðe ituɾˈβiðe] (); 27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824), in full Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu, also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician. [2] It was attended by the bishops of Puebla, Guadalajara, Durango, and Oaxaca. Prince of Mexico and member of the Imperial House of Iturbide. Agustín De Iturbide . He was executed on July 19 1824. From a balcony of the palace, Iturbide repeatedly denied his desire for the throne. The fifth child born to his parents, he was the only male to survive and eventually became head of the family.Iturbide's parents were part of the privileged class of Valladolid, owning farmland such as the haciendas of Apeo and Guaracha as well as lands in nearby Quirio. Other accusations against Iturbide included sacking private property and embezzling military funds. Agustín de Iturbide Biography, Life, Interesting Facts Childhood & Early Life. The Congress convened the next day to discuss the matter of Iturbide's election as Emperor. The crowd included Iturbide's old regiment from Celaya. Top Answer. In that manner, he was paving the road to gaining the support of the most powerful factions: the insurgents, the clergy and the Spaniards. The new government was overwhelmingly people loyal to Iturbide himself. If both refused, a suitable monarch would be searched for among the various European royal houses. Poinsett's Notes on Mexico are an important source as a foreign view of Iturbide's regime. O'Donojú, however, arrived to witness a nation on the brink of achieving independence and knew that its consummation could not be stopped. [13][20] That led to the disintegration of viceregal authority in Mexico City, and a political vacuum developed that the Mexican nobility sought to fill, seeking limited representation and autonomy for themselves within the empire. [11] For that action, Iturbide was promoted to captain. What he did not learn was that in April, Congress condemned him to death if he stepped on Mexican soil again, declaring him a traitor. Those ideas found a voice when Manuel Codorniu founded the newspaper El Sol, essentially becoming the in-house publication for the Scottish Rite lodge in its struggle against Iturbide. Iturbide's coronation was held at the Mexico City Cathedral on 21 July 1822, and his wife, Ana María, was crowned empress, in an elaborate ceremony. Agustín de Iturbide He was the first leader of independent Mexico. [6][7] Some sources state she came from a high-ranking family in Michoacán. Iturbi… In 1810 he refused a post in Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla's revolutionary forces and … In Mexico. [12], Early in the independence period of Mexico's history, even the day used to mark Independence would be based on one's political stance. Santa Anna, joined by republicans Guerrero, and Bravo, and imperial generals Echávarri, Cortázar y Rábago, and Lobato, proclaimed the Plan of Casa Mata, which called for the installation of a new Congress and declared the election of the emperor null and void. Corrections? Iturbide was born in Valladolid (now Morelia), Mexico, on Sept. 27, 1783, the scion of a wealthy, staunchly Catholic, aristocratic family of Basque descent. Agustín de Iturbide. [15] Similar to the Plan de Iguala, the document tried to guarantee an independent monarchy for New Spain under the Bourbon dynasty. [8] Then, in 1814, he was named the commander of forces in the Bajío area of Guanajuato, where he continued to pursue the rebels with vigor[16] in a strongly contested area,[8] and was Morelos's principal military opponent from 1813 to 1815. Agustín Cosme Damian de Iturbide y Arámburu was born in what was called Valladolid, now Morelia, the state capital of Michoacán, on 27 September 1783. He demonstrated his tactical skill and horsemanship by breaking Morelos's siege of the town with a well-executed cavalry charge that caused the insurgent forces to withdraw into the forest. However, he was accused by locals of using his authority for financial gain although he was recognized as valiant in combat. Log in or sign up first. Iturbide himself notes in his memoirs written in exile: "I had the condescension–or, call it weakness–of allowing myself to be seated in a throne I had created for others.". Iturbide's economic policies were draining resources as well. While the latter is considered the official name, the inhabitants of the country refer to it by the name of México. Iturbide had tried to stop Santa Anna by inviting him to Mexico City. Famed Mexican author José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, El Pensador ("the Mexican Thinker"), the author of El Periquillo Sarniento, wrote about the subject at the time: "If your excellency be not the Emperor, then our Independence be damned. [12] An idea arose in the class that if Mexico became independent or autonomous, and Ferdinand were deposed, he could become king of Mexico.[20]. This regime would oscillate and finally be overcome by the Plan of Ayutla. Agustin de Iturbide is a good example of a philanthropist. [25], Liberal or republican ideas were and would continue to be embraced by creoles outside the Mexico City elite. Iturbide persecuted his enemies, arresting and jailing a score of former members of the Congress, but that did not bring peace.[1][2][13]. The Mexican independence movement is distinguished sharply from its counterparts in South America by its two separate phases. Burial: Catedral Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México.

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