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verbascum thapsus history

Final . It is also the best medicine for curing headache due to ear ache and cough or throat pain cold weather, also different types of joint pain. [80][31][75], Mullein may be cultivated as an ornamental plant. Other cultures use the leaves as wicks. Initial assessment . [69412] 110. While many insects visit the flowers, only some bees actually accomplish pollination. "Mullein" itself derives from the French word for "soft". 1984. After flowering the entire plant usually dies at the end of its second year,[10] but some individuals, especially in the northern parts of the range, require a longer growth period and flower in their third year. [9] Useful insects are also hosted by great mullein, including predatory mites of the genera Galendromus, Typhlodromus and Amblyseius, the minute pirate bug Orius tristicolor[67] and the mullein plant bug (Campylomma verbasci). By 1818, it had begun spreading so much that Amos Eaton thought it was a native plant. The USDA plant distribution maps show it in all the U.S. states and all but Arctic Canada. [73], Although long used in herbal medicine, no high-quality clinical research has been conducted on Verbascum thapsus as of 2018, and there are no drugs manufactured from its components. oreophilum and Verbascum cheiranthifolium var. [9][10][12] Visitors include halictid bees and hoverflies. It never has been used for food but traditionally has been … JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. [31][34][41] The name "velvet dock" or "mullein dock" is also recorded, where "dock" is a British name applied to any broad-leaved plant. [69] The plant's ability to host both pests and beneficials makes it potentially useful to maintain stable populations of insects used for biological control in other cultures, like Campylomma verbasci and Dicyphus hesperus (Miridae), a predator of whiteflies. Journal of Ecology. [74] Leaves were smoked to attempt to treat lung ailments, a tradition that in America was rapidly transmitted to Native American peoples. While it can also grow in areas where some vegetation already exists, growth of the rosettes on bare soil is four to seven times more rapid. Common mullein is a biennial native to Eurasia and Africa that develops a basal rosette of felt-like leaves the first year, then bolts to heights of six feet or more. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. ii. Since Huber-Morath's groups are not taxonomical, Mürbeck's treatment is the most current one available, as no study has yet sought to apply genetic or molecular data extensively to the genus. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. The species' chromosome number is 2n = 36. Those that germinate in autumn produce plants that overwinter if they are large enough, while rosettes less than 15 cm (6 in) across die in winter. that looks like it woofy, it mentions fruit? Pl. In the eastern part of its range in China, it is, however, only reported to grow up to 1.5 m tall. [40], Some names refer to the plant's size and shape: "shepherd's club(s)" or "staff", "Aaron's Rod" (a name it shares with a number of other plants with tall, yellow inflorescences), and a plethora of other "X's staff" and "X's rod". Question Author. Although this plant is a recent arrival to North America, Native Americans used the ground seeds of this plant as a paralytic fish poison due to their high levels of rotenone. They are thick and decurrent, with much variation in leaf shape between the upper and lower leaves on the stem, ranging from oblong to oblanceolate, and reaching sizes up to 50 cm long and 14 cm across (19 inches long and 5 inches wide). The seed is said to have arrived on the North American continent in the dirt used as ballast in old sailing vessels. [63], Because it cannot compete with established plants, great mullein is no longer considered a serious agricultural weed and is easily crowded out in cultivation,[19] except in areas where vegetation is sparse to begin with, such as Californian semi-desertic areas of the eastern Sierra Nevada. (× V. verbascum thapsus https:/ /en.wik ipedia. [72], Control of the plant, when desired, is best managed via mechanical means, such as hand pulling and hoeing, preferably followed by sowing of native plants. Journal of Ecology European Unionherbal monograph on Verbascum thapsus L., V. densiflorum Bertol. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) two new records for the flora of Iran", "List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)", "Common Mullein—the Roadside Torch Parade", "An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding the Biology of Invasions: Local Adaptation and General-Purpose Genotypes in the Weed Verbascum thapsus", "Habitat requirements of central European bees and the problems of partial habitats", "Maintenance Behavior of the American Goldfinch", "Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region", "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", webpage with pictures of tall specimens,, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 02:04. giganteum, the hairs are densely white tomentose, and lower leaves strongly decurrent. [12] Goats and chickens have also been proposed to control mullein. Verbascum thapsus Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Asterids Order: Lamiales Family: Scrophulariaceae Genus: Verbascum Species: V. thapsus Binomial name Verbascum thapsus Linnaeus Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Burning is ineffective, as it only creates new bare areas for seedlings to occupy. It is a hairy biennial plant that can grow to 2 m tall or more. (3) Many genetically maintained differences, related to latitude of origin were noted. concerned solely with cultivated plants and agricultural ecosystems. ---Habitat---Verbascum thapsus (Linn. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. Durham, NC: Duke University. [19][51], Great mullein most frequently grows as a colonist of bare and disturbed soil, usually on sandy or chalky ones. [31] Topical application of various V. thapsus-based preparations was recommended for the treatment of warts,[77] boils, carbuncles, hemorrhoids, and chilblains, amongst others. org/wik i/Verba scum_th apsus. An infusion of the root is also used to treat athlete's foot. On average, triennial plants produced only one-fifth as much seed as biennial plants. (6) Longer average periods before reproduction were negatively correlated with the percentage of the ground surface covered by vegetation. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. are descriptive or historical accounts, although these must offer insights into This work describes life history variation in Verbascum thapsus L. with latitude. [52], Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. [55], A given flower is open only for a single day, opening before dawn and closing in the afternoon. Verbascum ist ein homöopathisches Mittel und der lateinische Name der Königskerze. [67] It is also a potential reservoir of the cucumber mosaic virus, Erysiphum cichoraceum (the cucurbit powdery mildew) and Texas root rot. 105 viride, ii. need to integrate history into forest ecology is further. See also: Verbascum_thapsus § Traditional_medicine The plant has a long history of use as a herbal remedy. [7] It grows best in dry, sandy or gravelly soils, although it can grow in a variety of habitats, including banksides, meadows, roadsides, forest clearings and pastures. Some of the more whimsical ones included "hig candlewick", "indian rag weed", "bullicks lungwort", "Adams-rod", "hare's-beard" and "ice-leaf". Quiets nervous, and bronchial, and urinary irritation, and cough. Catarrhs, and colds, with periodical prosopalgia. In Mürbeck's classification, V. thapsus is placed in section Bothrospermae subsect. issues of general interest to ecologists. [25][29], V. thapsus is known by a variety of names. [56] Because of this, and because the plant is an extremely prolific seed bearer (each plant produces hundreds of capsules, each containing up to 700+ seeds,[19] with a total up to 180,000[9][10] or 240,000[12] seeds), it remains in the soil seed bank for extended periods of time, and can sprout from apparently bare ground,[10] or shortly after forest fires long after previous plants have died. © 1984 British Ecological Society Ecology. [35][36], In the 19th century it had well over 40 different common names in English alone. Mullein (Verbascum thapsus ) also known as great mullein, is a dramatic biennial herb of the Scrophulariaceae or figwort family. [66], Despite not being an agricultural weed in itself, it hosts a number of insects and diseases, including both pests and beneficial insects.

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